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Mit o hrani: Ali je slabo ponovno uporabiti plastične steklenice za vodo?

Mit o hrani: Ali je slabo ponovno uporabiti plastične steklenice za vodo?



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Kot mladi družbeno ozaveščeni in okolju prijazni študentje si vsi prizadevamo, da bi svet postal bolj zelen. Toda kolikor se trudimo, tudi nimamo vedno razpoložljivega dohodka, da bi tak trajnostni cilj spremenili v resničnost. Rezultat? No, pogosto se mi zgodi, da kupim plastično steklenico vode in to isto steklenico polnim približno en teden. Ne samo, da sem okolju prijazen, ker tega ne zavržem, ampak tudi prihranim nekaj dolarjev. Prav?

Trenutno kroži mit o hrani, ki me je ustavil med polnjenjem: polnjenje plastičnih steklenic vode bi vas lahko ubilo.

Obstajajo trditve, da polnjenje plastenk z vodo počasi pušča škodljive kemikalije v pitno vodo. Ne vem za vas, toda kemikalije, ki povzročajo raka, niso tisto, kar bi rad pil v svoji pametni vodi. Od kod prihajajo te grde govorice o steklenicah vode? FDA trdi, da so prišli iz e-pošte, ki je postala viralna. Podatki, ki trdijo o tem uhajanju kemikalij, izvirajo iz magistrskega dela študenta Univerze v Idahu. Ta teza ni bila predmet strokovnega pregleda, pregleda FDA ali objavljena v znanstveni reviji.

FDA je povedala drugačno zgodbo. Večina steklenic pijač v ZDA je izdelanih iz polietilen tereftalata (PET), FDA pa je ugotovila, da je uporaba PET varna za enkratno in večkratno uporabo. Tako je, PONOVLJENA UPORABA. Videti je, da bom steklenice z vodo polnila več kot en teden.

FDA ugotavlja, da bi lahko ponovna uporaba plastičnih steklenic vode, ne da bi jih oprali, vsebovala nekatere bakterije. Plastika je po naravi sanitarni material, vendar FDA priporoča, da steklenico med uporabo sperete z vročo milnico. Sliši se dovolj enostavno.

Sodba? Mit je bil razbit, vendar ne pozabite, da se nove in obstoječe raziskave nenehno pregledujejo. Zaenkrat uporabite to steklenico že deseti dan zapored. V vodo ne puščajo nobene rakave kemikalije, in če jih enkrat ali dvakrat preskočite, vas ne bom poklical.

Post Mit o hrani: Ali je slabo ponovno uporabiti plastične steklenice za vodo? se je prvič pojavil na Univerzi Spoon.


Raziskovalec razbija mit o dioksinih in plastičnih steklenicah za vodo

Internet je bil preplavljen z lažnimi opozorili po e -pošti, da bi se izognili zmrzovanju vode v plastičnih steklenicah, da ne bi bili izpostavljeni rakotvornim dioksinom. Eno e -poštno sporočilo je bilo pomotoma pripisano Univerzi Johns Hopkins od pomladi 2004. Urad za komunikacije in odnose z javnostmi je o tem vprašanju razpravljal z dr.Rolfa Haldena, doc. Zdravje na šoli za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. Doktor Halden je magistriral in doktoriral z raziskovanjem onesnaženja z dioksinom v okolju. Sedeli smo z njim, da bi dosegli rekord pri dioksinih v preskrbi s hrano in tveganjih, povezanih s pitjem vode iz plastičnih steklenic in kuhanjem s plastiko.

Vprašanje: Kaj so dioksini?

Odgovor: Dioksini so organska onesnaževala okolja, ki jih včasih imenujemo najbolj strupene spojine, ki jih proizvaja človeštvo. So skupina kemikalij, ki vključuje 75 različnih kloriranih molekul dibenzo-p-dioksina in 135 kloriranih dibenzofuranov. Nekateri poliklorirani bifenili (PCB) se imenujejo tudi dioksinom podobne spojine. Izpostavljenost dioksinom lahko povzroči klorakne, hudo obliko kožne bolezni, pa tudi učinke na razmnoževanje in razvoj ter še pomembneje, poškodbe jeter in raka.

Vprašanje: Od kod prihajajo dioksini?

Odgovor: Vedno smo mislili, da so dioksini spojine umetnega izvora, ki so nastale nenamerno med beljenjem celuloze in proizvodnjo pesticidov, kot je Agent Orange in druge klorirane aromate. Toda dioksini v usedlinah iz jezer in oceanov so nastali pred temi človeškimi dejavnostmi. Zdaj je splošno sprejeto, da so glavni vir dioksinov različni procesi zgorevanja, vključno z naravnimi dogodki, kot so divji požari in celo vulkanski izbruhi.

Danes je kritično vprašanje sežiganje odpadkov, zlasti sežiganje bolnišničnih odpadkov, ki vsebujejo veliko polivinilklorida in aromatskih spojin, ki lahko služijo kot predhodniki dioksina. Ena študija je preučila sežig gospodinjskih odpadkov v bobnih na dvorišču. Izkazalo se je, da lahko ta majhna sežiganja ostankov izločijo toliko ali več dioksinov kot sežigalnica polne velikosti, ki dnevno porabi na stotine ton odpadkov. Sežigalnice so opremljene z najsodobnejšim nadzorom emisij, ki omejuje nastajanje dioksinov in njihov izpust v okolje, vendar kurjenje smeti na dvorišču ne. Vžgeš in kemija prevzame. Naslednje se zgodi, da se dioksini pošljejo v ozračje, kjer se pritrdijo na delce in padejo nazaj na zemljo. Nato se vežejo ali jih prevzamejo ribe in druge živali, kjer se koncentrirajo in shranijo v maščobi, preden končno končajo na krožnikih za kosilo in večerjo. Ljudje so jim izpostavljeni predvsem zaradi uživanja mesa in rib, bogatih z maščobami.

Vprašanje: Kaj menite o tem nedavnem e -poštnem opozorilu, ki trdi, da se dioksini lahko sproščajo z zamrzovanjem vode v plastičnih steklenicah?

Odgovor: Ne. To je urbana legenda. V plastiki ni dioksinov. Poleg tega zamrzovanje dejansko deluje proti sproščanju kemikalij. Kemikalije se pri nizkih temperaturah ne razpršijo tako hitro, kar bi omejilo sproščanje kemikalij, če bi bili v plastiki dioksini, in mislimo, da jih ni.

Vprašanje: Torej je v redu, da ljudje pijejo iz plastičnih steklenic vode?

Odgovor: Prvič, ljudi bi morala bolj skrbeti kakovost vode, ki jo pijejo, kot pa posoda, iz katere prihaja. Marsikdo se ne počuti prijetno pri pitju vode iz pipe, zato namesto tega kupuje ustekleničeno vodo. Resnica je, da je mestna voda veliko bolj urejena in kakovostno nadzorovana. Ustekleničena voda ni. Zakonsko lahko vsebuje marsikaj, česar ne bi prenašali v komunalni pitni vodi.

Vprašanje: Na stran steklenice z vodo, ali so izdelki iz plastike za vsakodnevno uporabo potencialno zaskrbljujoči? Kaj so ftalati?

Odgovor: Ob tem obstaja še ena skupina kemikalij, imenovana ftalati. Plastiki se včasih dodajo ftalati, da so fleksibilni in manj krhki, čeprav jih običajno ne najdemo v plastiki, ki se uporablja za steklenice za vodo, ki se prodajajo v Združenih državah. Ftalati so onesnaževalci okolja, ki lahko pri ljudeh in živalih delujejo kot hormonski motilci. Če segrejete plastiko, bi lahko povečali izločanje ftalatov iz posod v vodo in hrano.

Vprašanje: Kaj pa kuhanje s plastiko?

Odgovor: Na splošno, kadar nekaj segrejete, povečate verjetnost, da boste izvlekli kemikalije. Kemikalije se lahko sproščajo iz plastičnih embalažnih materialov, kot so tiste, ki se uporabljajo v nekaterih mikrovalovnih obrokih. Nekatere slamice za pitje na etiketi pravijo "ne za tople napitke". Večina ljudi misli, da je opozorilo, ker bi lahko kdo opekel. Če to slamico daš v vrelo skodelico vroče kave, se v bistvu dogaja ekstrakcija tople vode, kjer se kemikalije v slami ekstrahirajo v tvojo lepo skodelico kave. Enak postopek v laboratoriju uporabljamo za pridobivanje kemikalij iz materialov, ki jih želimo analizirati.

Če kuhate s plastiko ali uporabljate plastično posodo, je najbolje, da sledite navodilom in uporabljate samo plastiko, ki je posebej namenjena kuhanju. Najboljše so inertne posode, na primer toplotno odporno steklo, keramika in dobro staro nerjavno jeklo.

Vprašanje: Ali želite še kaj dodati?

Odgovor: Ne bojte se pitne vode. Zelo pomembno je, da pijemo ustrezne količine vode in mimogrede, to je poleg vse kave, piva in drugih diuretikov, ki jih radi uživamo. Če ne pijete res slabe vode, boste bolj verjetno trpeli zaradi škodljivih učinkov dehidracije kot zaradi majhnih količin kemičnih onesnaževalcev, ki so prisotni v vaši oskrbi z vodo. Relativno gledano je tveganje zaradi izpostavljenosti mikrobnim kontaminantom veliko večje kot pri kemikalijah.

In tukaj je še eno neprijetno dejstvo. Vsak od nas že nosi določeno telesno obremenitev z dioksini, ne glede na to, kako in kaj jemo. Če dovolj pozorno pogledate, boste v skoraj vsakem mestu na Zemlji našli sledi dioksinov. Paracelsus, slavni srednjeveški alkimist, je povedal preprosto in preprosto: odmerek tvori strup.-Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Raziskovalec razbija mit o dioksinih in plastičnih steklenicah za vodo

Internet je bil preplavljen z lažnimi opozorili po e -pošti, da bi se izognili zmrzovanju vode v plastičnih steklenicah, da ne bi bili izpostavljeni rakotvornim dioksinom. Eno e -poštno sporočilo je bilo pomotoma pripisano Univerzi Johns Hopkins od pomladi 2004. Urad za komunikacije in odnose z javnostmi je o tem vprašanju razpravljal z dr.Rolfa Haldena, doc. Zdravje na šoli za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. Dr.Halden je magistriral in doktoriral z raziskovanjem onesnaženja z dioksinom v okolju. Sedeli smo z njim, da bi dosegli rekord pri dioksinih v preskrbi s hrano in tveganjih, povezanih s pitjem vode iz plastičnih steklenic in kuhanjem s plastiko.

Vprašanje: Kaj so dioksini?

Odgovor: Dioksini so organska onesnaževala okolja, ki jih včasih imenujemo najbolj strupene spojine, ki jih proizvaja človeštvo. So skupina kemikalij, ki vključuje 75 različnih kloriranih molekul dibenzo-p-dioksina in 135 kloriranih dibenzofuranov. Nekateri poliklorirani bifenili (PCB) se imenujejo tudi dioksinom podobne spojine. Izpostavljenost dioksinom lahko povzroči klorakne, hudo obliko kožne bolezni, pa tudi učinke na razmnoževanje in razvoj ter še pomembneje, poškodbe jeter in raka.

Vprašanje: Od kod prihajajo dioksini?

Odgovor: Vedno smo mislili, da so dioksini spojine umetnega izvora, ki so nastale nenamerno med beljenjem celuloze in proizvodnjo pesticidov, kot je Agent Orange in druge klorirane aromate. Toda dioksini v usedlinah iz jezer in oceanov so nastali pred temi človeškimi dejavnostmi. Zdaj je splošno sprejeto, da so glavni vir dioksinov različni procesi zgorevanja, vključno z naravnimi dogodki, kot so divji požari in celo vulkanski izbruhi.

Danes je kritično vprašanje sežiganje odpadkov, zlasti sežiganje bolnišničnih odpadkov, ki vsebujejo veliko polivinilklorida in aromatskih spojin, ki lahko služijo kot predhodniki dioksina. Ena študija je preučila sežig gospodinjskih odpadkov v bobnih na dvorišču. Izkazalo se je, da lahko ta majhna sežiganja ostankov izločijo toliko ali več dioksinov kot sežigalnica polne velikosti, ki dnevno porabi na stotine ton odpadkov. Sežigalnice so opremljene z najsodobnejšimi kontrolami emisij, ki omejujejo nastajanje dioksinov in njihov izpust v okolje, vendar kurjenje smeti na dvorišču ne. Vžgeš in kemija prevzame. Naslednje se zgodi, da se dioksini pošljejo v ozračje, kjer se pritrdijo na delce in padejo nazaj na zemljo. Nato se vežejo na ribe ali druge živali ali jih prevzamejo, kjer se koncentrirajo in shranijo v maščobi, preden končno končajo na krožnikih za kosilo in večerjo. Ljudje so jim izpostavljeni predvsem zaradi uživanja mesa in rib, bogatih z maščobami.

Vprašanje: Kaj menite o tem nedavnem e -poštnem opozorilu, ki trdi, da se dioksini lahko sproščajo z zamrzovanjem vode v plastičnih steklenicah?

Odgovor: Ne. To je urbana legenda. V plastiki ni dioksinov. Poleg tega zamrzovanje dejansko deluje proti sproščanju kemikalij. Kemikalije se pri nizkih temperaturah ne razpršijo tako hitro, kar bi omejilo sproščanje kemikalij, če bi bili v plastiki dioksini, in mislimo, da jih ni.

Vprašanje: Torej je v redu, da ljudje pijejo iz plastičnih steklenic vode?

Odgovor: Prvič, ljudi bi morala bolj skrbeti kakovost vode, ki jo pijejo, kot pa posoda, iz katere prihaja. Marsikdo se ne počuti prijetno pri pitju vode iz pipe, zato namesto tega kupuje ustekleničeno vodo. Resnica je, da je mestna voda veliko bolj urejena in kakovostno nadzorovana. Ustekleničena voda ni. Zakonsko lahko vsebuje marsikaj, česar ne bi prenašali v komunalni pitni vodi.

Vprašanje: Na stran steklenice z vodo, ali so izdelki iz plastike za vsakodnevno uporabo potencialno zaskrbljujoči? Kaj so ftalati?

Odgovor: Ob tem obstaja še ena skupina kemikalij, imenovana ftalati. Plastiki se včasih dodajo ftalati, da postanejo fleksibilni in manj krhki, čeprav jih običajno ne najdemo v plastiki, ki se uporablja za steklenice za vodo, ki se prodajajo v Združenih državah. Ftalati so onesnaževalci okolja, ki lahko pri ljudeh in živalih delujejo kot hormonski motilci. Če segrejete plastiko, bi lahko povečali izločanje ftalatov iz posod v vodo in hrano.

Vprašanje: Kaj pa kuhanje s plastiko?

Odgovor: Na splošno, kadar nekaj segrejete, povečate verjetnost izvlečenja kemikalij. Kemikalije se lahko sproščajo iz plastičnih embalažnih materialov, kot so tiste, ki se uporabljajo v nekaterih mikrovalovnih obrokih. Nekatere slamice za pitje na etiketi pravijo "ne za tople napitke". Večina ljudi misli, da je opozorilo, ker bi lahko kdo opekel. Če to slamico daš v vrelo skodelico vroče kave, se v bistvu dogaja odvajanje tople vode, kjer se kemikalije v slami ekstrahirajo v tvojo lepo skodelico kave. Enak postopek v laboratoriju uporabljamo za pridobivanje kemikalij iz materialov, ki jih želimo analizirati.

Če kuhate s plastiko ali uporabljate plastično posodo, je najbolje, da sledite navodilom in uporabljate samo plastiko, ki je posebej namenjena kuhanju. Najboljše so inertne posode, na primer toplotno odporno steklo, keramika in dobro staro nerjavno jeklo.

Vprašanje: Ali želite še kaj dodati?

Odgovor: Ne bojte se pitne vode. Zelo pomembno je, da pijemo ustrezne količine vode in mimogrede, to je poleg vse kave, piva in drugih diuretikov, ki jih radi uživamo. Če ne pijete res slabe vode, boste bolj verjetno trpeli zaradi škodljivih učinkov dehidracije kot zaradi majhnih količin kemičnih onesnaževalcev, ki so prisotni v vaši oskrbi z vodo. Relativno gledano je tveganje zaradi izpostavljenosti mikrobnim kontaminantom veliko večje kot pri kemikalijah.

In tukaj je še eno neprijetno dejstvo. Vsak od nas že nosi določeno telesno obremenitev z dioksini, ne glede na to, kako in kaj jemo. Če dovolj pozorno pogledate, boste v skoraj vsakem mestu na Zemlji našli sledi dioksinov. Paracelsus, slavni srednjeveški alkimist, je povedal preprosto in preprosto: odmerek tvori strup.-Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Raziskovalec razbija mit o dioksinih in plastičnih steklenicah za vodo

Internet je bil preplavljen z lažnimi opozorili po e -pošti, da bi se izognili zmrzovanju vode v plastičnih steklenicah, da ne bi bili izpostavljeni rakotvornim dioksinom. Eno e -poštno sporočilo je bilo pomotoma pripisano Univerzi Johns Hopkins od pomladi 2004. Urad za komunikacije in odnose z javnostmi je o tem vprašanju razpravljal z dr.Rolfa Haldena, doc. Zdravje na šoli za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. Dr.Halden je magistriral in doktoriral z raziskovanjem onesnaženja z dioksinom v okolju. Sedeli smo z njim, da bi dosegli rekord pri dioksinih v preskrbi s hrano in tveganjih, povezanih s pitjem vode iz plastičnih steklenic in kuhanjem s plastiko.

Vprašanje: Kaj so dioksini?

Odgovor: Dioksini so organska onesnaževala okolja, ki jih včasih imenujemo najbolj strupene spojine, ki jih proizvaja človeštvo. So skupina kemikalij, ki vključuje 75 različnih kloriranih molekul dibenzo-p-dioksina in 135 kloriranih dibenzofuranov. Nekateri poliklorirani bifenili (PCB) se imenujejo tudi dioksinom podobne spojine. Izpostavljenost dioksinom lahko povzroči klorakne, hudo obliko kožne bolezni, pa tudi učinke na razmnoževanje in razvoj ter še pomembneje, poškodbe jeter in raka.

Vprašanje: Od kod prihajajo dioksini?

Odgovor: Vedno smo mislili, da so dioksini spojine umetnega izvora, ki so nastale nenamerno med beljenjem celuloze in proizvodnjo pesticidov, kot je Agent Orange in druge klorirane aromate. Toda dioksini v usedlinah iz jezer in oceanov so nastali pred temi človeškimi dejavnostmi. Zdaj je splošno sprejeto, da so glavni vir dioksinov različni procesi zgorevanja, vključno z naravnimi dogodki, kot so divji požari in celo vulkanski izbruhi.

Danes je kritično vprašanje sežiganje odpadkov, zlasti sežiganje bolnišničnih odpadkov, ki vsebujejo veliko polivinilklorida in aromatskih spojin, ki lahko služijo kot predhodniki dioksina. Ena študija je preučila sežig gospodinjskih odpadkov v bobnih na dvorišču. Izkazalo se je, da lahko ta majhna sežiganja ostankov izločijo toliko ali več dioksinov kot sežigalnica polne velikosti, ki dnevno porabi na stotine ton odpadkov. Sežigalnice so opremljene z najsodobnejšimi kontrolami emisij, ki omejujejo nastajanje dioksinov in njihov izpust v okolje, vendar kurjenje smeti na dvorišču ne. Vžgeš in kemija prevzame. Naslednje se zgodi, da se dioksini pošljejo v ozračje, kjer se pritrdijo na delce in padejo nazaj na zemljo. Nato se vežejo ali jih prevzamejo ribe in druge živali, kjer se koncentrirajo in shranijo v maščobi, preden končno končajo na krožnikih za kosilo in večerjo. Ljudje so jim izpostavljeni predvsem zaradi uživanja mesa in rib, bogatih z maščobami.

Vprašanje: Kaj menite o tem nedavnem e -poštnem opozorilu, ki trdi, da se dioksini lahko sproščajo z zamrzovanjem vode v plastičnih steklenicah?

Odgovor: Ne. To je urbana legenda. V plastiki ni dioksinov. Poleg tega zamrzovanje dejansko deluje proti sproščanju kemikalij. Kemikalije se pri nizkih temperaturah ne razpršijo tako hitro, kar bi omejilo sproščanje kemikalij, če bi bili v plastiki dioksini, in mislimo, da jih ni.

Vprašanje: Torej je v redu, da ljudje pijejo iz plastičnih steklenic vode?

Odgovor: Prvič, ljudi bi morala bolj skrbeti kakovost vode, ki jo pijejo, kot pa posoda, iz katere prihaja. Marsikdo se ne počuti prijetno pri pitju vode iz pipe, zato namesto tega kupuje ustekleničeno vodo. Resnica je, da je mestna voda veliko bolj urejena in kakovostno nadzorovana. Ustekleničena voda ni. Zakonsko lahko vsebuje marsikaj, česar ne bi prenašali v komunalni pitni vodi.

Vprašanje: Na stran steklenice za vodo, ali so izdelki iz plastike za vsakodnevno uporabo potencialno zaskrbljujoči? Kaj so ftalati?

Odgovor: Ob tem obstaja še ena skupina kemikalij, imenovana ftalati. Plastiki se včasih dodajo ftalati, da postanejo fleksibilni in manj krhki, čeprav jih običajno ne najdemo v plastiki, ki se uporablja za steklenice za vodo, ki se prodajajo v Združenih državah. Ftalati so onesnaževalci okolja, ki lahko pri ljudeh in živalih delujejo kot hormonski motilci. Če segrejete plastiko, bi lahko povečali izločanje ftalatov iz posod v vodo in hrano.

Vprašanje: Kaj pa kuhanje s plastiko?

Odgovor: Na splošno, kadar nekaj segrejete, povečate verjetnost, da boste izvlekli kemikalije. Kemikalije se lahko sproščajo iz plastičnih embalažnih materialov, kot so tiste, ki se uporabljajo v nekaterih mikrovalovnih obrokih. Nekatere slamice za pitje na etiketi pravijo "ne za tople napitke". Večina ljudi misli, da je opozorilo, ker bi lahko kdo opekel. Če to slamico daš v vrelo skodelico vroče kave, se v bistvu dogaja odvajanje tople vode, kjer se kemikalije v slami ekstrahirajo v tvojo lepo skodelico kave. Enak postopek v laboratoriju uporabljamo za pridobivanje kemikalij iz materialov, ki jih želimo analizirati.

Če kuhate s plastiko ali uporabljate plastične pripomočke, je najbolje, da sledite navodilom in uporabite samo plastiko, ki je posebej namenjena kuhanju. Najboljše so inertne posode, na primer toplotno odporno steklo, keramika in dobro staro nerjavno jeklo.

Vprašanje: Ali želite še kaj dodati?

Odgovor: Ne bojte se pitne vode. Zelo pomembno je, da pijemo ustrezne količine vode in mimogrede, to je poleg vse kave, piva in drugih diuretikov, ki jih radi uživamo. Če ne pijete res slabe vode, boste bolj verjetno trpeli zaradi škodljivih učinkov dehidracije kot zaradi majhnih količin kemičnih onesnaževalcev, ki so prisotni v vaši oskrbi z vodo. Relativno gledano je tveganje zaradi izpostavljenosti mikrobnim kontaminantom veliko večje kot pri kemikalijah.

In tukaj je še eno neprijetno dejstvo. Vsak od nas že nosi določeno telesno obremenitev z dioksini, ne glede na to, kako in kaj jemo. Če dovolj pozorno pogledate, boste v skoraj vsakem mestu na Zemlji našli sledi dioksinov. Paracelsus, slavni srednjeveški alkimist, je povedal preprosto in preprosto: odmerek tvori strup.-Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Raziskovalec razbija mit o dioksinih in plastičnih steklenicah za vodo

Internet je preplavljen z lažnimi opozorili po e -pošti, da se izognemo zmrzovanju vode v plastičnih steklenicah, da ne bi bili izpostavljeni rakotvornim dioksinom. Eno e -poštno sporočilo je bilo pomotoma pripisano Univerzi Johns Hopkins od pomladi 2004. Urad za komunikacije in odnose z javnostmi je o tem vprašanju razpravljal z dr.Rolfa Haldena, doc. Zdravje na šoli za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. Dr.Halden je magistriral in doktoriral z raziskovanjem onesnaženja z dioksinom v okolju. Sedeli smo z njim, da bi dosegli rekord pri dioksinih v preskrbi s hrano in tveganjih, povezanih s pitjem vode iz plastičnih steklenic in kuhanjem s plastiko.

Vprašanje: Kaj so dioksini?

Odgovor: Dioksini so organska onesnaževala okolja, ki jih včasih imenujemo najbolj strupene spojine, ki jih proizvaja človeštvo. So skupina kemikalij, ki vključuje 75 različnih kloriranih molekul dibenzo-p-dioksina in 135 kloriranih dibenzofuranov. Nekateri poliklorirani bifenili (PCB) se imenujejo tudi dioksinom podobne spojine. Izpostavljenost dioksinom lahko povzroči klorakne, hudo obliko kožne bolezni, pa tudi učinke na razmnoževanje in razvoj ter še pomembneje, poškodbe jeter in raka.

Vprašanje: Od kod prihajajo dioksini?

Odgovor: Vedno smo mislili, da so dioksini spojine umetnega izvora, ki so nastale nenamerno med beljenjem celuloze in proizvodnjo pesticidov, kot je Agent Orange in druge klorirane aromate. Toda dioksini v usedlinah iz jezer in oceanov so bili pred temi človeškimi dejavnostmi. Zdaj je splošno sprejeto, da so glavni vir dioksinov različni procesi zgorevanja, vključno z naravnimi dogodki, kot so divji požari in celo vulkanski izbruhi.

Danes je kritično vprašanje sežiganje odpadkov, zlasti sežiganje bolnišničnih odpadkov, ki vsebujejo veliko polivinilklorida in aromatskih spojin, ki lahko služijo kot predhodniki dioksina. Ena študija je preučila sežig gospodinjskih odpadkov v bobnih na dvorišču. Izkazalo se je, da lahko ta majhna sežiganja ostankov izločijo toliko ali več dioksinov kot sežigalnica polne velikosti, ki dnevno porabi na stotine ton odpadkov. Sežigalnice so opremljene z najsodobnejšimi kontrolami emisij, ki omejujejo nastajanje dioksinov in njihov izpust v okolje, vendar kurjenje smeti na dvorišču ne. Vžgeš in kemija prevzame. Naslednje se zgodi, da se dioksini pošljejo v ozračje, kjer se pritrdijo na delce in padejo nazaj na zemljo. Nato se vežejo ali jih prevzamejo ribe in druge živali, kjer se koncentrirajo in shranijo v maščobi, preden končno končajo na krožnikih za kosilo in večerjo. Ljudje so jim izpostavljeni predvsem zaradi uživanja mesa in rib, bogatih z maščobami.

Vprašanje: Kaj menite o tem nedavnem e -poštnem opozorilu, ki trdi, da se dioksini lahko sproščajo z zamrzovanjem vode v plastičnih steklenicah?

Odgovor: Ne. To je urbana legenda. V plastiki ni dioksinov. Poleg tega zamrzovanje dejansko deluje proti sproščanju kemikalij. Kemikalije se pri nizkih temperaturah ne razpršijo tako hitro, kar bi omejilo sproščanje kemikalij, če bi bili v plastiki dioksini, in mislimo, da jih ni.

Vprašanje: Torej je v redu, da ljudje pijejo iz plastičnih steklenic vode?

Odgovor: Prvič, ljudi bi moralo bolj skrbeti kakovost vode, ki jo pijejo, kot pa posoda, iz katere prihaja. Marsikdo se ne počuti prijetno pri pitju vode iz pipe, zato namesto tega kupuje ustekleničeno vodo. Resnica je, da je mestna voda veliko bolj urejena in kakovostno nadzorovana. Ustekleničena voda ni. Zakonsko lahko vsebuje marsikaj, česar ne bi prenašali v komunalni pitni vodi.

Vprašanje: Na stran steklenice za vodo, ali so izdelki iz plastike za vsakodnevno uporabo potencialno zaskrbljujoči? Kaj so ftalati?

Odgovor: Ob tem obstaja še ena skupina kemikalij, imenovana ftalati. Plastiki se včasih dodajo ftalati, da so fleksibilni in manj krhki, čeprav jih običajno ne najdemo v plastiki, ki se uporablja za steklenice za vodo, ki se prodajajo v Združenih državah. Ftalati so onesnaževalci okolja, ki lahko pri ljudeh in živalih delujejo kot hormonski motilci. Če segrejete plastiko, bi lahko povečali izločanje ftalatov iz posod v vodo in hrano.

Vprašanje: Kaj pa kuhanje s plastiko?

Odgovor: Na splošno, kadar nekaj segrejete, povečate verjetnost, da boste izvlekli kemikalije. Kemikalije se lahko sproščajo iz plastičnih embalažnih materialov, kot so tiste, ki se uporabljajo v nekaterih mikrovalovnih obrokih. Nekatere slamice za pitje na etiketi pravijo "ne za tople napitke". Večina ljudi misli, da je opozorilo, ker bi lahko kdo opekel. Če to slamico daš v vrelo skodelico vroče kave, se v bistvu dogaja odvajanje tople vode, kjer se kemikalije v slami ekstrahirajo v tvojo lepo skodelico kave. Enak postopek v laboratoriju uporabljamo za pridobivanje kemikalij iz materialov, ki jih želimo analizirati.

Če kuhate s plastiko ali uporabljate plastične pripomočke, je najbolje, da sledite navodilom in uporabite samo plastiko, ki je posebej namenjena kuhanju. Najboljše so inertne posode, na primer toplotno odporno steklo, keramika in dobro staro nerjavno jeklo.

Vprašanje: Ali želite še kaj dodati?

Odgovor: Ne bojte se pitne vode. Zelo pomembno je, da pijemo ustrezne količine vode in mimogrede, to je poleg vse kave, piva in drugih diuretikov, ki jih radi uživamo. Če ne pijete res slabe vode, boste bolj verjetno trpeli zaradi škodljivih učinkov dehidracije kot zaradi majhnih količin kemičnih onesnaževalcev, ki so prisotni v vaši oskrbi z vodo. Relativno gledano je tveganje zaradi izpostavljenosti mikrobnim kontaminantom veliko večje kot pri kemikalijah.

In tukaj je še eno neprijetno dejstvo. Vsak od nas že nosi določeno telesno obremenitev z dioksini, ne glede na to, kako in kaj jemo. Če dovolj pozorno pogledate, boste v skoraj vsakem mestu na Zemlji našli sledi dioksinov. Paracelsus, slavni srednjeveški alkimist, je povedal preprosto in preprosto: odmerek tvori strup.-Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Raziskovalec razbija mit o dioksinih in plastičnih steklenicah za vodo

Internet je preplavljen z lažnimi opozorili po e -pošti, da se izognemo zmrzovanju vode v plastičnih steklenicah, da ne bi bili izpostavljeni rakotvornim dioksinom. Eno e -poštno sporočilo je bilo pomotoma pripisano Univerzi Johns Hopkins od pomladi 2004. Urad za komunikacije in javne zadeve je o tem vprašanju razpravljal z dr. Zdravje na šoli za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. Dr.Halden je magistriral in doktoriral z raziskovanjem onesnaženja z dioksinom v okolju. Sedeli smo z njim, da bi dosegli rekord pri dioksinih v preskrbi s hrano in tveganjih, povezanih s pitjem vode iz plastičnih steklenic in kuhanjem s plastiko.

Vprašanje: Kaj so dioksini?

Odgovor: Dioksini so organska onesnaževala okolja, ki jih včasih imenujemo najbolj strupene spojine, ki jih proizvaja človeštvo. So skupina kemikalij, ki vključuje 75 različnih kloriranih molekul dibenzo-p-dioksina in 135 kloriranih dibenzofuranov. Nekateri poliklorirani bifenili (PCB) se imenujejo tudi dioksinom podobne spojine. Izpostavljenost dioksinom lahko povzroči klorakne, hudo obliko kožne bolezni, pa tudi učinke na razmnoževanje in razvoj ter še pomembneje, poškodbe jeter in raka.

Vprašanje: Od kod prihajajo dioksini?

Odgovor: Vedno smo mislili, da so dioksini spojine umetnega izvora, ki so nastale nenamerno med beljenjem celuloze in proizvodnjo pesticidov, kot je Agent Orange in druge klorirane aromate. Toda dioksini v usedlinah iz jezer in oceanov so bili pred temi človeškimi dejavnostmi. Zdaj je splošno sprejeto, da so glavni vir dioksinov različni procesi zgorevanja, vključno z naravnimi dogodki, kot so divji požari in celo vulkanski izbruhi.

Danes je kritično vprašanje sežiganje odpadkov, zlasti sežiganje bolnišničnih odpadkov, ki vsebujejo veliko polivinilklorida in aromatskih spojin, ki lahko služijo kot predhodniki dioksina. Ena študija je preučila sežig gospodinjskih odpadkov v bobnih na dvorišču. Izkazalo se je, da lahko ta majhna sežiganja ostankov izločijo toliko ali več dioksinov kot sežigalnica polne velikosti, ki dnevno porabi na stotine ton odpadkov. Sežigalnice so opremljene z najsodobnejšimi kontrolami emisij, ki omejujejo nastajanje dioksinov in njihov izpust v okolje, vendar kurjenje smeti na dvorišču ne. Vžgeš in kemija prevzame. Naslednje se zgodi, da se dioksini pošljejo v ozračje, kjer se pritrdijo na delce in padejo nazaj na zemljo. Nato se vežejo na ribe ali druge živali ali jih prevzamejo, kjer se koncentrirajo in shranijo v maščobi, preden končno končajo na krožnikih za kosilo in večerjo. Ljudje so jim izpostavljeni predvsem zaradi uživanja mesa in rib, bogatih z maščobami.

Vprašanje: Kaj menite o tem nedavnem e -poštnem opozorilu, ki trdi, da se dioksini lahko sproščajo z zamrzovanjem vode v plastičnih steklenicah?

Odgovor: Ne. To je urbana legenda. V plastiki ni dioksinov. Poleg tega zamrzovanje dejansko deluje proti sproščanju kemikalij. Chemicals do not diffuse as readily in cold temperatures, which would limit chemical release if there were dioxins in plastic, and we don’t think there are.

Question: So it’s okay for people to drink out of plastic water bottles?

Answer: First, people should be more concerned about the quality of the water they are drinking rather than the container it’s coming from. Many people do not feel comfortable drinking tap water, so they buy bottled water instead. The truth is that city water is much more highly regulated and monitored for quality. Bottled water is not. It can legally contain many things we would not tolerate in municipal drinking water.

Question: Water bottles aside, are plastics products for daily use a potential concern? What are phthalates?

Answer: Having said this, there is another group of chemicals, called phthalates. Phthalates are sometimes added to plastics to make them flexible and less brittle, although they are not typically found in plastics used for water bottles sold in the United States. Phthalates are environmental contaminants that can exhibit hormone-like behavior by acting as endocrine disruptors in humans and animals. If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates from the containers into water and food.

Question: What about cooking with plastics?

Answer: In general, whenever you heat something you increase the likelihood of pulling chemicals out. Chemicals can be released from plastic packaging materials like the kinds used in some microwave meals. Some drinking straws say on the label “not for hot beverages.” Most people think the warning is because someone might be burned. If you put that straw into a boiling cup of hot coffee, you basically have a hot water extraction going on, where the chemicals in the straw are being extracted into your nice cup of coffee. We use the same process in the lab to extract chemicals from materials we want to analyze.

If you are cooking with plastics or using plastic utensils, the best thing to do is to follow the directions and only use plastics that are specifically meant for cooking. Inert containers are best, for example heat-resistant glass, ceramics and good old stainless steel.

Question: Is there anything else you want to add?

Answer: Don’t be afraid of drinking water. It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water and, by the way that’s in addition to all the coffee, beer and other diuretics we love to consume. Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply. Relatively speaking, the risk from exposure to microbial contaminants is much greater than that from chemicals.

And here’s one more uncomfortable fact. Each of us already carries a certain body burden of dioxins regardless of how and what we eat. If you look hard enough, you’ll find traces of dioxins in pretty much every place on earth. Paracelsus the famous medieval alchemist, used to put it straight and simple: it’s the dose that makes the poison.--Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles

The Internet has been flooded with false email warnings to avoid freezing water in plastic bottles so as not to get exposed to carcinogenic dioxins. One hoax email has been erroneously attributed to Johns Hopkins University since the spring of 2004. The Office of Communications and Public Affairs discussed the issue with Rolf Halden, PhD, PE, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences and the Center for Water and Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Halden received his masters and doctoral degrees researching dioxin contamination in the environment. We sat down with him to set the record straight on dioxins in the food supply and the risks associated with drinking water from plastic bottles and cooking with plastics.

Question: What are dioxins?

Answer: Dioxins are organic environmental pollutants sometimes referred to as the most toxic compounds made by mankind. They are a group of chemicals, which include 75 different chlorinated molecules of dibenzo-p-dioxin and 135 chlorinated dibenzofurans. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also are referred to as dioxin-like compounds. Exposure to dioxins can cause chloracne, a severe form of skin disease, as well as reproductive and developmental effects, and more importantly, liver damage and cancer.

Question: Where do dioxins come from?

Answer: We always thought dioxins were man-made compounds produced inadvertently during the bleaching of pulp and manufacturing of pesticides like Agent Orange and other chlorinated aromatics. But dioxins in sediments from lakes and oceans predate these human activities. It is now generally accepted that a principal source of dioxins are various combustion processes, including natural events such as wild fires and even volcanic eruptions.

Today, the critical issue is the incineration of waste, particularly the incineration of hospital waste, which contains a great deal of polyvinyl chloride and aromatic compounds that can serve as dioxin precursors. One study examined the burning of household trash in drums in the backyard. It turns out that these small burnings of debris can put out as much or more dioxins as a full-sized incinerator burning hundreds of tons of refuse per day. The incinerators are equipped with state-of-the-art emission controls that limit dioxin formation and their release into the environment, but the backyard trash burning does not. You set it ablaze and chemistry takes over. What happens next is that the dioxins are sent into the atmosphere where they become attached to particles and fall back to earth. Then they bind to, or are taken up, by fish and other animals, where they get concentrated and stored in fat before eventually ending up on our lunch and dinner plates. People are exposed to them mostly from eating meat and fish rich in fat.

Question: What do you make of this recent email warning that claims dioxins can be released by freezing water in plastic bottles?

Answer: No. This is an urban legend. There are no dioxins in plastics. In addition, freezing actually works against the release of chemicals. Chemicals do not diffuse as readily in cold temperatures, which would limit chemical release if there were dioxins in plastic, and we don’t think there are.

Question: So it’s okay for people to drink out of plastic water bottles?

Answer: First, people should be more concerned about the quality of the water they are drinking rather than the container it’s coming from. Many people do not feel comfortable drinking tap water, so they buy bottled water instead. The truth is that city water is much more highly regulated and monitored for quality. Bottled water is not. It can legally contain many things we would not tolerate in municipal drinking water.

Question: Water bottles aside, are plastics products for daily use a potential concern? What are phthalates?

Answer: Having said this, there is another group of chemicals, called phthalates. Phthalates are sometimes added to plastics to make them flexible and less brittle, although they are not typically found in plastics used for water bottles sold in the United States. Phthalates are environmental contaminants that can exhibit hormone-like behavior by acting as endocrine disruptors in humans and animals. If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates from the containers into water and food.

Question: What about cooking with plastics?

Answer: In general, whenever you heat something you increase the likelihood of pulling chemicals out. Chemicals can be released from plastic packaging materials like the kinds used in some microwave meals. Some drinking straws say on the label “not for hot beverages.” Most people think the warning is because someone might be burned. If you put that straw into a boiling cup of hot coffee, you basically have a hot water extraction going on, where the chemicals in the straw are being extracted into your nice cup of coffee. We use the same process in the lab to extract chemicals from materials we want to analyze.

If you are cooking with plastics or using plastic utensils, the best thing to do is to follow the directions and only use plastics that are specifically meant for cooking. Inert containers are best, for example heat-resistant glass, ceramics and good old stainless steel.

Question: Is there anything else you want to add?

Answer: Don’t be afraid of drinking water. It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water and, by the way that’s in addition to all the coffee, beer and other diuretics we love to consume. Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply. Relatively speaking, the risk from exposure to microbial contaminants is much greater than that from chemicals.

And here’s one more uncomfortable fact. Each of us already carries a certain body burden of dioxins regardless of how and what we eat. If you look hard enough, you’ll find traces of dioxins in pretty much every place on earth. Paracelsus the famous medieval alchemist, used to put it straight and simple: it’s the dose that makes the poison.--Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles

The Internet has been flooded with false email warnings to avoid freezing water in plastic bottles so as not to get exposed to carcinogenic dioxins. One hoax email has been erroneously attributed to Johns Hopkins University since the spring of 2004. The Office of Communications and Public Affairs discussed the issue with Rolf Halden, PhD, PE, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences and the Center for Water and Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Halden received his masters and doctoral degrees researching dioxin contamination in the environment. We sat down with him to set the record straight on dioxins in the food supply and the risks associated with drinking water from plastic bottles and cooking with plastics.

Question: What are dioxins?

Answer: Dioxins are organic environmental pollutants sometimes referred to as the most toxic compounds made by mankind. They are a group of chemicals, which include 75 different chlorinated molecules of dibenzo-p-dioxin and 135 chlorinated dibenzofurans. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also are referred to as dioxin-like compounds. Exposure to dioxins can cause chloracne, a severe form of skin disease, as well as reproductive and developmental effects, and more importantly, liver damage and cancer.

Question: Where do dioxins come from?

Answer: We always thought dioxins were man-made compounds produced inadvertently during the bleaching of pulp and manufacturing of pesticides like Agent Orange and other chlorinated aromatics. But dioxins in sediments from lakes and oceans predate these human activities. It is now generally accepted that a principal source of dioxins are various combustion processes, including natural events such as wild fires and even volcanic eruptions.

Today, the critical issue is the incineration of waste, particularly the incineration of hospital waste, which contains a great deal of polyvinyl chloride and aromatic compounds that can serve as dioxin precursors. One study examined the burning of household trash in drums in the backyard. It turns out that these small burnings of debris can put out as much or more dioxins as a full-sized incinerator burning hundreds of tons of refuse per day. The incinerators are equipped with state-of-the-art emission controls that limit dioxin formation and their release into the environment, but the backyard trash burning does not. You set it ablaze and chemistry takes over. What happens next is that the dioxins are sent into the atmosphere where they become attached to particles and fall back to earth. Then they bind to, or are taken up, by fish and other animals, where they get concentrated and stored in fat before eventually ending up on our lunch and dinner plates. People are exposed to them mostly from eating meat and fish rich in fat.

Question: What do you make of this recent email warning that claims dioxins can be released by freezing water in plastic bottles?

Answer: No. This is an urban legend. There are no dioxins in plastics. In addition, freezing actually works against the release of chemicals. Chemicals do not diffuse as readily in cold temperatures, which would limit chemical release if there were dioxins in plastic, and we don’t think there are.

Question: So it’s okay for people to drink out of plastic water bottles?

Answer: First, people should be more concerned about the quality of the water they are drinking rather than the container it’s coming from. Many people do not feel comfortable drinking tap water, so they buy bottled water instead. The truth is that city water is much more highly regulated and monitored for quality. Bottled water is not. It can legally contain many things we would not tolerate in municipal drinking water.

Question: Water bottles aside, are plastics products for daily use a potential concern? What are phthalates?

Answer: Having said this, there is another group of chemicals, called phthalates. Phthalates are sometimes added to plastics to make them flexible and less brittle, although they are not typically found in plastics used for water bottles sold in the United States. Phthalates are environmental contaminants that can exhibit hormone-like behavior by acting as endocrine disruptors in humans and animals. If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates from the containers into water and food.

Question: What about cooking with plastics?

Answer: In general, whenever you heat something you increase the likelihood of pulling chemicals out. Chemicals can be released from plastic packaging materials like the kinds used in some microwave meals. Some drinking straws say on the label “not for hot beverages.” Most people think the warning is because someone might be burned. If you put that straw into a boiling cup of hot coffee, you basically have a hot water extraction going on, where the chemicals in the straw are being extracted into your nice cup of coffee. We use the same process in the lab to extract chemicals from materials we want to analyze.

If you are cooking with plastics or using plastic utensils, the best thing to do is to follow the directions and only use plastics that are specifically meant for cooking. Inert containers are best, for example heat-resistant glass, ceramics and good old stainless steel.

Question: Is there anything else you want to add?

Answer: Don’t be afraid of drinking water. It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water and, by the way that’s in addition to all the coffee, beer and other diuretics we love to consume. Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply. Relatively speaking, the risk from exposure to microbial contaminants is much greater than that from chemicals.

And here’s one more uncomfortable fact. Each of us already carries a certain body burden of dioxins regardless of how and what we eat. If you look hard enough, you’ll find traces of dioxins in pretty much every place on earth. Paracelsus the famous medieval alchemist, used to put it straight and simple: it’s the dose that makes the poison.--Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles

The Internet has been flooded with false email warnings to avoid freezing water in plastic bottles so as not to get exposed to carcinogenic dioxins. One hoax email has been erroneously attributed to Johns Hopkins University since the spring of 2004. The Office of Communications and Public Affairs discussed the issue with Rolf Halden, PhD, PE, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences and the Center for Water and Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Halden received his masters and doctoral degrees researching dioxin contamination in the environment. We sat down with him to set the record straight on dioxins in the food supply and the risks associated with drinking water from plastic bottles and cooking with plastics.

Question: What are dioxins?

Answer: Dioxins are organic environmental pollutants sometimes referred to as the most toxic compounds made by mankind. They are a group of chemicals, which include 75 different chlorinated molecules of dibenzo-p-dioxin and 135 chlorinated dibenzofurans. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also are referred to as dioxin-like compounds. Exposure to dioxins can cause chloracne, a severe form of skin disease, as well as reproductive and developmental effects, and more importantly, liver damage and cancer.

Question: Where do dioxins come from?

Answer: We always thought dioxins were man-made compounds produced inadvertently during the bleaching of pulp and manufacturing of pesticides like Agent Orange and other chlorinated aromatics. But dioxins in sediments from lakes and oceans predate these human activities. It is now generally accepted that a principal source of dioxins are various combustion processes, including natural events such as wild fires and even volcanic eruptions.

Today, the critical issue is the incineration of waste, particularly the incineration of hospital waste, which contains a great deal of polyvinyl chloride and aromatic compounds that can serve as dioxin precursors. One study examined the burning of household trash in drums in the backyard. It turns out that these small burnings of debris can put out as much or more dioxins as a full-sized incinerator burning hundreds of tons of refuse per day. The incinerators are equipped with state-of-the-art emission controls that limit dioxin formation and their release into the environment, but the backyard trash burning does not. You set it ablaze and chemistry takes over. What happens next is that the dioxins are sent into the atmosphere where they become attached to particles and fall back to earth. Then they bind to, or are taken up, by fish and other animals, where they get concentrated and stored in fat before eventually ending up on our lunch and dinner plates. People are exposed to them mostly from eating meat and fish rich in fat.

Question: What do you make of this recent email warning that claims dioxins can be released by freezing water in plastic bottles?

Answer: No. This is an urban legend. There are no dioxins in plastics. In addition, freezing actually works against the release of chemicals. Chemicals do not diffuse as readily in cold temperatures, which would limit chemical release if there were dioxins in plastic, and we don’t think there are.

Question: So it’s okay for people to drink out of plastic water bottles?

Answer: First, people should be more concerned about the quality of the water they are drinking rather than the container it’s coming from. Many people do not feel comfortable drinking tap water, so they buy bottled water instead. The truth is that city water is much more highly regulated and monitored for quality. Bottled water is not. It can legally contain many things we would not tolerate in municipal drinking water.

Question: Water bottles aside, are plastics products for daily use a potential concern? What are phthalates?

Answer: Having said this, there is another group of chemicals, called phthalates. Phthalates are sometimes added to plastics to make them flexible and less brittle, although they are not typically found in plastics used for water bottles sold in the United States. Phthalates are environmental contaminants that can exhibit hormone-like behavior by acting as endocrine disruptors in humans and animals. If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates from the containers into water and food.

Question: What about cooking with plastics?

Answer: In general, whenever you heat something you increase the likelihood of pulling chemicals out. Chemicals can be released from plastic packaging materials like the kinds used in some microwave meals. Some drinking straws say on the label “not for hot beverages.” Most people think the warning is because someone might be burned. If you put that straw into a boiling cup of hot coffee, you basically have a hot water extraction going on, where the chemicals in the straw are being extracted into your nice cup of coffee. We use the same process in the lab to extract chemicals from materials we want to analyze.

If you are cooking with plastics or using plastic utensils, the best thing to do is to follow the directions and only use plastics that are specifically meant for cooking. Inert containers are best, for example heat-resistant glass, ceramics and good old stainless steel.

Question: Is there anything else you want to add?

Answer: Don’t be afraid of drinking water. It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water and, by the way that’s in addition to all the coffee, beer and other diuretics we love to consume. Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply. Relatively speaking, the risk from exposure to microbial contaminants is much greater than that from chemicals.

And here’s one more uncomfortable fact. Each of us already carries a certain body burden of dioxins regardless of how and what we eat. If you look hard enough, you’ll find traces of dioxins in pretty much every place on earth. Paracelsus the famous medieval alchemist, used to put it straight and simple: it’s the dose that makes the poison.--Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles

The Internet has been flooded with false email warnings to avoid freezing water in plastic bottles so as not to get exposed to carcinogenic dioxins. One hoax email has been erroneously attributed to Johns Hopkins University since the spring of 2004. The Office of Communications and Public Affairs discussed the issue with Rolf Halden, PhD, PE, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences and the Center for Water and Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Halden received his masters and doctoral degrees researching dioxin contamination in the environment. We sat down with him to set the record straight on dioxins in the food supply and the risks associated with drinking water from plastic bottles and cooking with plastics.

Question: What are dioxins?

Answer: Dioxins are organic environmental pollutants sometimes referred to as the most toxic compounds made by mankind. They are a group of chemicals, which include 75 different chlorinated molecules of dibenzo-p-dioxin and 135 chlorinated dibenzofurans. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also are referred to as dioxin-like compounds. Exposure to dioxins can cause chloracne, a severe form of skin disease, as well as reproductive and developmental effects, and more importantly, liver damage and cancer.

Question: Where do dioxins come from?

Answer: We always thought dioxins were man-made compounds produced inadvertently during the bleaching of pulp and manufacturing of pesticides like Agent Orange and other chlorinated aromatics. But dioxins in sediments from lakes and oceans predate these human activities. It is now generally accepted that a principal source of dioxins are various combustion processes, including natural events such as wild fires and even volcanic eruptions.

Today, the critical issue is the incineration of waste, particularly the incineration of hospital waste, which contains a great deal of polyvinyl chloride and aromatic compounds that can serve as dioxin precursors. One study examined the burning of household trash in drums in the backyard. It turns out that these small burnings of debris can put out as much or more dioxins as a full-sized incinerator burning hundreds of tons of refuse per day. The incinerators are equipped with state-of-the-art emission controls that limit dioxin formation and their release into the environment, but the backyard trash burning does not. You set it ablaze and chemistry takes over. What happens next is that the dioxins are sent into the atmosphere where they become attached to particles and fall back to earth. Then they bind to, or are taken up, by fish and other animals, where they get concentrated and stored in fat before eventually ending up on our lunch and dinner plates. People are exposed to them mostly from eating meat and fish rich in fat.

Question: What do you make of this recent email warning that claims dioxins can be released by freezing water in plastic bottles?

Answer: No. This is an urban legend. There are no dioxins in plastics. In addition, freezing actually works against the release of chemicals. Chemicals do not diffuse as readily in cold temperatures, which would limit chemical release if there were dioxins in plastic, and we don’t think there are.

Question: So it’s okay for people to drink out of plastic water bottles?

Answer: First, people should be more concerned about the quality of the water they are drinking rather than the container it’s coming from. Many people do not feel comfortable drinking tap water, so they buy bottled water instead. The truth is that city water is much more highly regulated and monitored for quality. Bottled water is not. It can legally contain many things we would not tolerate in municipal drinking water.

Question: Water bottles aside, are plastics products for daily use a potential concern? What are phthalates?

Answer: Having said this, there is another group of chemicals, called phthalates. Phthalates are sometimes added to plastics to make them flexible and less brittle, although they are not typically found in plastics used for water bottles sold in the United States. Phthalates are environmental contaminants that can exhibit hormone-like behavior by acting as endocrine disruptors in humans and animals. If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates from the containers into water and food.

Question: What about cooking with plastics?

Answer: In general, whenever you heat something you increase the likelihood of pulling chemicals out. Chemicals can be released from plastic packaging materials like the kinds used in some microwave meals. Some drinking straws say on the label “not for hot beverages.” Most people think the warning is because someone might be burned. If you put that straw into a boiling cup of hot coffee, you basically have a hot water extraction going on, where the chemicals in the straw are being extracted into your nice cup of coffee. We use the same process in the lab to extract chemicals from materials we want to analyze.

If you are cooking with plastics or using plastic utensils, the best thing to do is to follow the directions and only use plastics that are specifically meant for cooking. Inert containers are best, for example heat-resistant glass, ceramics and good old stainless steel.

Question: Is there anything else you want to add?

Answer: Don’t be afraid of drinking water. It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water and, by the way that’s in addition to all the coffee, beer and other diuretics we love to consume. Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply. Relatively speaking, the risk from exposure to microbial contaminants is much greater than that from chemicals.

And here’s one more uncomfortable fact. Each of us already carries a certain body burden of dioxins regardless of how and what we eat. If you look hard enough, you’ll find traces of dioxins in pretty much every place on earth. Paracelsus the famous medieval alchemist, used to put it straight and simple: it’s the dose that makes the poison.--Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles

The Internet has been flooded with false email warnings to avoid freezing water in plastic bottles so as not to get exposed to carcinogenic dioxins. One hoax email has been erroneously attributed to Johns Hopkins University since the spring of 2004. The Office of Communications and Public Affairs discussed the issue with Rolf Halden, PhD, PE, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences and the Center for Water and Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Halden received his masters and doctoral degrees researching dioxin contamination in the environment. We sat down with him to set the record straight on dioxins in the food supply and the risks associated with drinking water from plastic bottles and cooking with plastics.

Question: What are dioxins?

Answer: Dioxins are organic environmental pollutants sometimes referred to as the most toxic compounds made by mankind. They are a group of chemicals, which include 75 different chlorinated molecules of dibenzo-p-dioxin and 135 chlorinated dibenzofurans. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also are referred to as dioxin-like compounds. Exposure to dioxins can cause chloracne, a severe form of skin disease, as well as reproductive and developmental effects, and more importantly, liver damage and cancer.

Question: Where do dioxins come from?

Answer: We always thought dioxins were man-made compounds produced inadvertently during the bleaching of pulp and manufacturing of pesticides like Agent Orange and other chlorinated aromatics. But dioxins in sediments from lakes and oceans predate these human activities. It is now generally accepted that a principal source of dioxins are various combustion processes, including natural events such as wild fires and even volcanic eruptions.

Today, the critical issue is the incineration of waste, particularly the incineration of hospital waste, which contains a great deal of polyvinyl chloride and aromatic compounds that can serve as dioxin precursors. One study examined the burning of household trash in drums in the backyard. It turns out that these small burnings of debris can put out as much or more dioxins as a full-sized incinerator burning hundreds of tons of refuse per day. The incinerators are equipped with state-of-the-art emission controls that limit dioxin formation and their release into the environment, but the backyard trash burning does not. You set it ablaze and chemistry takes over. What happens next is that the dioxins are sent into the atmosphere where they become attached to particles and fall back to earth. Then they bind to, or are taken up, by fish and other animals, where they get concentrated and stored in fat before eventually ending up on our lunch and dinner plates. People are exposed to them mostly from eating meat and fish rich in fat.

Question: What do you make of this recent email warning that claims dioxins can be released by freezing water in plastic bottles?

Answer: No. This is an urban legend. There are no dioxins in plastics. In addition, freezing actually works against the release of chemicals. Chemicals do not diffuse as readily in cold temperatures, which would limit chemical release if there were dioxins in plastic, and we don’t think there are.

Question: So it’s okay for people to drink out of plastic water bottles?

Answer: First, people should be more concerned about the quality of the water they are drinking rather than the container it’s coming from. Many people do not feel comfortable drinking tap water, so they buy bottled water instead. The truth is that city water is much more highly regulated and monitored for quality. Bottled water is not. It can legally contain many things we would not tolerate in municipal drinking water.

Question: Water bottles aside, are plastics products for daily use a potential concern? What are phthalates?

Answer: Having said this, there is another group of chemicals, called phthalates. Phthalates are sometimes added to plastics to make them flexible and less brittle, although they are not typically found in plastics used for water bottles sold in the United States. Phthalates are environmental contaminants that can exhibit hormone-like behavior by acting as endocrine disruptors in humans and animals. If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates from the containers into water and food.

Question: What about cooking with plastics?

Answer: In general, whenever you heat something you increase the likelihood of pulling chemicals out. Chemicals can be released from plastic packaging materials like the kinds used in some microwave meals. Some drinking straws say on the label “not for hot beverages.” Most people think the warning is because someone might be burned. If you put that straw into a boiling cup of hot coffee, you basically have a hot water extraction going on, where the chemicals in the straw are being extracted into your nice cup of coffee. We use the same process in the lab to extract chemicals from materials we want to analyze.

If you are cooking with plastics or using plastic utensils, the best thing to do is to follow the directions and only use plastics that are specifically meant for cooking. Inert containers are best, for example heat-resistant glass, ceramics and good old stainless steel.

Question: Is there anything else you want to add?

Answer: Don’t be afraid of drinking water. It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water and, by the way that’s in addition to all the coffee, beer and other diuretics we love to consume. Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply. Relatively speaking, the risk from exposure to microbial contaminants is much greater than that from chemicals.

And here’s one more uncomfortable fact. Each of us already carries a certain body burden of dioxins regardless of how and what we eat. If you look hard enough, you’ll find traces of dioxins in pretty much every place on earth. Paracelsus the famous medieval alchemist, used to put it straight and simple: it’s the dose that makes the poison.--Tim Parsons

Bloombergova šola za javno zdravje Johns Hopkins
615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205


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